All workshop sessions are held on Tuesdays at 5pm UKT.
Autumn 2022 Series
Professor Allan Macinnes
University of Strathclyde (Emeritus)
Horizons Old and New: Jacobite Global Adventuring
Outwith Paris, Madrid and Rome, Jacobite commercial networks in Europe were clustered around coastal towns in Iberia, France, the Low Countries, Scandinavia and the Baltic that engaged in overseas trade. The one notable exception was St Petersburg from where commerce was pursued overland through the Levant and on to Persia. Jacobite networks were also embedded within the main European commercial hubs at London, Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Hamburg. In North America, Scottish Jacobites were active in the commercial hubs at Boston, New York, Philadelphia and Charleston from the later seventeenth century and likewise among the planter communities in the southern American colonies and in the West Indies, especially in Barbados and Jamaica. Scottish Jacobites were sponsored to settle as frontiersmen to protect colonies in New York, New Jersey, North and South Carolina and Georgia and were also forced to settle as indentured labour when shipped out as prisoners in the wake of the ’15 and the ’45 to North America and the Caribbean. That these settlements were predominantly in colonies producing tobacco, sugar, rum and indigo bound Jacobite adventuring to the exploitation of slavery. However, Scots carved out a specialist niche in trading with native tribes. Indeed, while some attention has been given to divided Jacobite loyalties during the American Wars of Independence, fugitives from Culloden were prominent as advisers and associates of the Cherokee nation in resisting incorporation into the United States.
Scottish Jacobites did not confine their activities to single continents with new commercial horizons opening up in Asia and Africa as well as Latin America. Indeed, some networks engaged profitably with the Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch, Swedish and Russian as well as the British Empires. Monies made in Mexico and the Caribbean became seed funding for venturing in India and China, usually through free trading and tramp trading rather than through the auspices of the English East India Company. Capital accumulated from commodity trading in coffee, textiles, sugar candy and opium were reinvested in the West Indies to a greater extent than it was repatriated to transform rural and urban landscapes or support Jacobitism. However, such commercial engagement was high risk. The chances of an adventurer returning with a fortune from the East Indies were 1 in 500. Further adventuring as free traders as well as association with the Royal African and South Sea Companies led to Scottish Jacobites engaging in chattel slavery at source from Senegal through the Guinea Coast to Angola and on to Latin America by way of the Caribbean. But Jacobites, like other seafaring adventurers, also faced the prospect of white slavery if captured by Turkish or Barbary Coast privateers, a fate that led a shipload of clansmen who had fought at Culloden ending up on the island of Lemnoa in Ethiopia, where the local governor turned out to be a kinsman who had gone as a boy on the Darien expedition in the late 1690s and subsequently adventured in Africa and Asia.
Texas A&M University
The ’45 in 75: Memories of Jacobitism and
the Rebellious Turn in the American Revolution
A Tolerated Minority? The Protestant Experience
in the Irish Brigade of France
The Arts Society
Jacobite Material Culture: Observations, Revelations
and Probably Some Misapprehensions
Being interested in silver, it seemed to me that the medium was missing out on all the fun. Among domestic items, ceramics and glass were well represented among treacherous objects, but material that defined wealth, status, and good taste oddly seemed to be missing, apart from medals and touchpieces made of silver. Clearly if silver was used as a medium to convey Stuart sentiments, it was in the very ‘opaque’ category, and definitely at the elite end of the market. I decided to look again at some mid-eighteenth-century silver pieces through the prisms of allegory, biblical references, fables, contentious heraldry, and the like to see if I could winkle out a few suspects. Certainty is impossible due to the ambiguity required, and I leave the prospect of misapprehension open in the title! But I hope to show that silver items were included in the Jacobite vocabulary of ‘silent communication’ and the medium deserves a higher profile.
Dr Jérémy Filet & Dr Stephen Griffin
Manchester Metropolitan University
Université de Lorraine & University of Limerick
Diplomatic Letters and the Decision-Making Process: The Forstner Correspondence and Anglo-Lorraine Relations, 1711-1713
Stephen Griffin, PhD, is a graduate of the University of Limerick where he is currently a lecturer in History. He is a former recipient of the Richard Plaschka pre-doctoral fellowship, Austria (2017-18) and the Rev. Liam Swords Foundation Bursary, France (2019). He has published in the Historical Journal, Bulletin du Centre de recherche du chateau de Versailles and History Ireland, and has a number of papers and chapters both forthcoming and currently under review. He is an Associate Fellow of the Royal Historical Society.
Dr Jacqueline Riding
Jacobite Studies Trust
The March of the Guards to Finchley
University of Delaware
Mary Stuart in Jacobite Memory
Previous JST Workshop Programmes
Autumn 2021 SeriesOpen or Close
Professor Daniel Szechi
University of Manchester (Emeritus)
‘Suppose I Should Lose my Life in the Quarrell, I do but my Duty’: Father James Carnegy, Espionage and Covert Action on Behalf of the Jacobite Shadow State 1697-1735This focus of this paper is Father James Carnegy, a Roman Catholic priest in the Scots Mission. In many respects he was absolutely typical of the Mission’s recruits from Scotland’s heritor elite. He was devout, learned and self-sacrificing, with a genuine commitment to his calling. But that was just his day job; he was no simple cleric. For Carnegy was also unswervingly committed to the Jacobite cause and for more than twenty-five years was deeply involved in espionage and covert action on behalf of the exiled Stuarts. And it is this highly dangerous parallel career as a spy and secret agent that will be explored in this paper with a view to understanding how it was he managed to operate so successfully for so long. By doing so we can gain a new insight into the Jacobite milieu in Scotland and the flow of intelligence from that milieu to the Jacobite court and its continental allies. In addition, Carnegy’s career will be used to test our current assumptions about the surveillance and counterintelligence capabilities of the Scottish, then British, state. Only rarely can we even come close to tracking the underground activities of a man like James Carnegy, but when we can do this we are soon led into a perilous world far removed from the polite and commercial people of historiographical legend.Daniel Szechi took his first degree at the University of Sheffield and his DPhil at the University of Oxford. Over his career he taught at St John’s College, Oxford, Auburn University, Alabama, and the University of Manchester. He retired in 2017 and is Emeritus Professor in Early Modern History at the University of Manchester, Honorary Professor of History at Aberdeen and Emeritus Professor of History at Auburn University Alabama. He continues to research and write and now also runs a historical consultancy business. He has written extensively on the history of Jacobitism and his latest book, The Jacobites: Britain and Europe 1688-1788 (2nd ed., Manchester University Press) was published in May 2019.
Professor Michael Brown
University of Aberdeen
A Union of Hearts and Minds: Conversion and Commitment in the British and Irish UnionThis paper seeks to answer the question of why, given the extent of state support for the established churches in the eighteenth century from monetary endowment to punitive measures taken against competing confessions, the rate of conversion was so low. In addressing this issue, the paper addresses the capacity of the Stuart court to maintain political commitment despite the repeated failures of its revanchist ambitions. In so doing, it explores the culture of defeat, the politics of nostalgia and the stability of religious and political identity in the wake of the revolutionary settlements of the late seventeenth century.Michel Brown holds a chair in Irish, Scottish and Enlightenment History at the University of Aberdeen, where he is also a co-Director of the Research Institute of Irish and Scottish Studies. He is the author of The Irish Enlightenment (2016) and of biographical studies of Francis Hutcheson and John Toland. He is currently writing a textbook for Routledge entitled A Cultural History of Europe, 1688-1914, and a study provisionally entitled Making Up Britain in the Eighteenth Century, from which this essay is taken.
Dr Darren S. Layne
The Jacobite Database of 1745
A Farewell to Arms: The Statistics of Surrender in Jacobite AberdeenshireIn the late summer of 1745, mere days after the last Jacobite rising had commenced, British government officials sought a suitable way to discourage as many of the common rank-and-file troops as possible as a means of halting the spread of open disaffection. They needed a plan that would quickly declaw and disperse the bulk of the Jacobite military, likely saving the precious time and enormous expense that otherwise would have been spent on prosecuting a significant population of plebeian combatants and their civilian logistical networks, should the rising be successfully crushed. The government's multi-pronged response was drafted from a fusion of debate and precedent concerning what actions were considered appropriately commensurate to the crimes and what regulations had already been established in the aftermath of the Fifteen. Citing widespread experiences of rebel plebeians going along with hereditary landowners by contract, and regular intelligence reports of Jacobite recruiters compelling commoners into the ranks with threats, the government's official de-escalation policy was designed around the promise of letting them off the hook.
Field Marshal George Wade’s public declaration in late October 1745 and Cumberland’s ‘last-chance’ proclamation in February 1746 both promised blanket indemnities through generalised ‘mercy’ to any rebel participant below the ranks of officers and gentlemen who would submit their arms and surrender their identities to local magistrates or parish ministers. Estimations of the efficacy of these amnesties have been neglected by historians, and lists of the some 4500 participants who surrendered as a direct result of these government initiatives have neither been compiled nor analysed, yet a great deal of this raw data is present in the archives. Indeed, this remarkable number of capitulations represents roughly a third of total projected Jacobite army strength through the entire campaign.
There is therefore still much to learn about the people who raised arms for the Jacobite cause outwith the extensive (and often specious) antiquarian analysis of known prisoners. The following forensic and prosopographical study of 123 voluntary surrenders in Crathie and Braemar, the spiritual heartland of Jacobite Scotland, is but an entrée to a much larger project. Yet it provides a sound methodological model to examine not only those who raised arms for Jacobitism, but those who put them back down again, choosing the government’s promises of clemency over persecution.Darren Scott Layne received his PhD from the University of St Andrews and is creator and curator of the Jacobite Database of 1745, a wide-ranging prosopographical study of people who were involved in the last rising. His historical interests are focused on the protean nature of popular Jacobitism and how the movement was expressed through its plebeian adherents. He is a passionate advocate of the digital humanities, data cogency, and accessible, open research for all.
Dr Matthias Range
University of Oxford
A Jacobite ‘Swan Song’?
The Atterbury Plot and Bononcini’s Anthem
for the Funeral of the Duke of Marlborough, 1722The so-called Atterbury Plot of 1722, named after Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster, was effectively the last major Jacobite conspiracy before Walpole’s Whig supremacy changed the political landscape with its strong suppression of political opponents. The height of the plot coincided with the funeral of the Duke of Marlborough, at which Atterbury officiated. For the elaborate ceremony Giovanni Bononcini wrote his anthem When Saul was King. This anthem, neglected by musicians and historians alike, became an important part of the eighteenth-century repertoire; it circulated in printed editions and manuscript copies and was performed throughout the country, setting new standards for grand funerals.
A new, detailed examination and contextualisation of the anonymous text of the anthem allows to suggest possible Jacobite contents with plausible references to the plot. These findings may contribute to the understanding of Jacobite ‘coded’ language and rhetoric in the first quarter of the century. In this context, this study also offers a re-appreciation of Atterbury’s well-known correspondence with Alexander Pope which allows for new readings and conclusions regarding Atterbury’s role in the plot.
Considering the possible Jacobite references in the text of the anthem, emphasised in Bononcini’s dramatic setting, it would appear that the differentiation into Jacobite and Hanoverian was not easily clear-cut, let alone obvious at the time. These possible associations contrast with the well-known perception that the Whig government and establishment tried to claim Marlborough as their own. Originating at a time when the failure of the Atterbury Plot became apparent, the anthem at Marlborough’s funeral was not merely a commemorative piece for the great Duke; rather it was a ‘Swan Song’ for the unsuccessful plot and the whole of the Jacobite movement.Matthias Range is a post-doctoral researcher for the Digital Image Archive of Medieval Music at the Faculty of Music, University of Oxford. He studied Art History and Musicology at the Philipps-University Marburg/Lahn (Germany), before completing a DPhil thesis on British Coronation Music at Oxford University in 2008, followed by a postdoctoral position in early-modern history at Oxford Brookes University. His study on Ceremonial and Music at British Coronations was published in 2012, followed by a book on British Royal and State Funerals, published in 2016. He has just finished a similar, two-volume study on British Royal Weddings since the Stuarts. His main research areas are seventeenth to nineteenth century sacred music and culture, and the history of the monarchy.
Dr Joseph Hone
David Edwards and the Jacobite PressThis paper reconstructs the inner workings of a Jacobite press active in London during the decade following the lapse of the Printing Act in 1695. For ten years, David Edwards was one of the most prolific and controversial printers in London. A specialist in Jacobite books and pamphlets, he was frequently subjected to government searches and prosecutions. And yet his name has never featured in any previous study of Jacobitism. Using bibliographical and historical techniques of detection and analysis, this paper pieces together his varied career, his networks, and his output, much of which was produced anonymously.Joseph Hone is a literary scholar and book historian at Newcastle University. He is the author of three books, most recently a revisionist account of the early career of Alexander Pope. He is currently writing a full-length study of the clandestine book trade in eighteenth-century England.
Dr Georgia Vullinghs
University of Edinburgh
Spare and Pair: The Material and Visual Culture of Henry Benedict Stuart, Jacobite Prince in ExileThe story of Jacobitism often revolves around a hero prince, Charles Edward Stuart, or ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’. Heir to the exiled Stuart dynasty, from the 1730s, Charles was the central figure of hope for a Stuart restoration. When he left Rome in 1744 to stage a French-supported invasion attempt, he was fulfilling his role as a martial prince. In all of this however, Charles had a shadow. His younger brother, Henry Benedict (1725-1807). As a medal of the two princes from 1731 declared, if Charles was the Christ-like prince who “shines amongst all”, Henry was “the next after him”: the devoted younger son of the dynasty who would loyally follow his brother, but also the ‘spare’, security for the Stuart lineage. However, the dominant image of Henry has come to be that of a Cardinal, after he took up the ecclesiastical appointment in 1747. Examining the material and visual culture of Henry Benedict Stuart pre-1747, this paper will consider his place within the Stuart dynasty as a prince in exile. It will discuss the extent to which a martial identity was created for Henry, and its limitation. Through letters exchanged between the royal brothers held amongst the Stuart Papers at Windsor, this paper also investigates the fraternal bonds between the princes and shows how dynastic hierarchies shaped Henry’s place in Jacobite history.Dr Georgia Vullinghs is a historian of eighteenth-century Scotland and Britain. She recently completed an AHRC funded PhD project, ‘Loyal Exchange: the material and visual culture of Jacobite exile, c.1716-c.1760’ with the University of Edinburgh and National Museum Scotland. In addition to Jacobite material culture, Georgia’s research interests lie in women’s histories, and Scottish cultural identity.
Dr Samuel Fisher
Catholic University of America
'Universal Instruments of Tyranny'? The Scots, Jacobitism, and the American RevolutionThis paper explores the intertwined Scotophobia and anti-Jacobitism of the American patriots. While many scholars have noted the influence of the Scottish Enlightenment on the founders, they themselves consistently depicted the Scots as enemies of the Revolution. I argue that this fear of the Scots and their (supposedly) Jacobite ways drew on a critique of Scots' role in reshaping the empire's approach to diversity – an approach American patriots associated with James II and the Stuarts.Sam Fisher is Assistant Professor of History at the Catholic University of America. His first book, Inclusive Empire, Exclusionary Patriots (forthcoming from Oxford University Press) offers a new explanation of the origins of the American Revolution. The project draws on Irish- and Scottish-Gaelic language and Native American sources to show how colonized peoples tried to reshape empires in their own image, and how their partial success convinced American colonists to leave the British empire. Fisher is also co-editor of the forthcoming anthology of Irish-language poetry Bone and Marrow/Cnámh agus Smior: An Anthology of Irish Poetry from Medieval to Modern, to be published by Wake Forest University Press in 2022.
Spring 2022 SeriesOpen or Close
Professor Murray Pittock
University of Glasgow
Rebellious Scots to Crush: British Army Deployment in Central and Southern Scotland, 1748-50This presentation offers a focus on one aspect of a larger study, examining the movement and use of British Army units, generally but not solely in the burghs, at the end of the 1740s. It suggests that the deployment of Crown forces implied a belief that Scotland was effectively ungovernable without military support, and that this view in part arose from the difficulty commanders had in separating the use of forces to contain Jacobite unrest and bring order to Jacobite areas from disorder more primarily caused by the increasing pressures of excise collection on local economies.Murray Pittock is Treasurer of the Jacobite Studies Trust, of which he was a founding member in 2003. He is Pro Vice-Principal at the University of Glasgow with responsibility for early career development and a range of UK and international civic engagement and knowledge exchange activities, and also provides policy advice externally. He is a fellow of the European Academy/Academia Europaea and the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and a prize lecturer of both the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the British Academy. Outside the university he is co-Chair of the Scottish Arts and Humanities Alliance and board member and Scottish History Adviser to the National Trust for Scotland. His most recent work on Jacobitism includes Material Culture and Sedition (2013) Culloden (2016; Folio Society, 2021), Scots Musical Museum (Oxford, 2018) and Enlightenment in a Smart City: Edinburgh’s Civic Development, 1660-1750 (2019). His Global History of Scotland is due to be published by Yale in 2022 and he is currently beginning a detailed study of the British Army in Scotland in the years after 1746. He broadcasts widely, and has been termed (National Endowment for the Humanities annual seminar 2014, Notre Dame) 'Scotland's leading public intellectual'.
Dr Harman Murtagh
Irish Commission for Military History
The Irish Jacobite Army 1689-91The scale of the Williamite/Jacobite/War-of-the-Kings war in Ireland was immense, with more complex causes than often realised. It involved the presence of rival kings, large multi-national armies, major pitched battles, sieges and other military operations, and an estimated 100,000 casualties, military and civilian. The Irish Jacobite army that sustained this conflict over three years was largely recruited from Irish Catholics, but with some French and British officers. It was not a rabble, and after a difficult start, with strong French support it became an organised force of sixty regiments. Although ultimately defeated, it proved capable of giving a good account of itself. During and immediately after the war about 20,000 of its personnel went to France. It was supported in Ireland by several auxiliary forces, the most effective of which were the partisans, known as rapparees.Harman Murtagh is a graduate of Dublin University (TCD), the National University of Ireland, and the University of Amsterdam. He is a former president of the Military History Society of Ireland / Irish Commission for Military History. He has written and lectured extensively on the war of 1689-91. He is currently completing a study of the Irish Jacobite army.
University of Edinburgh
Forfeiture and Accommodation in St. Kitts, 1688-1732Although the significance of the Jacobite forfeitures within Britain and Ireland is widely appreciated, research into the phenomenon has not been extended to the Caribbean where similar policy was carried out. This paper, based on a draft chapter of my thesis, expands the subject of the forfeiture of Jacobite estates to the small Caribbean island of St. Kitts. Here, a rising in 1689 by predominately Irish Jacobites helped deliver the island to French control. However, following the recapture of the island by supporters of William and Mary, those who had aided the French invasion found their properties forfeited. This chapter explores the long-term impact of this policy alongside the various attempts pursued by the island's government to prevent the return of Jacobites to St. Kitts.Harry is a third year PhD student at the University of Edinburgh and his project looks at the Jacobite diaspora across the Greater Caribbean in the period 1688 to circa 1750. Seeking to understand the Jacobites as a global diaspora, his research investigates the Jacobites as they moved into and across the European empires in the Greater Caribbean (principally those of Britain, France and Spain) and how these Jacobites related to the diaspora and Stuart courts in Europe. He came to the subject after an MSc by Research in 2019 that looked at the links of the Stuart government in exile to three Jacobite 'projectors' who, with varying success, sought to align the movement and Stuart-allied governments with ostensibly Jacobite pirates in the Bahamas and Madagascar between 1718 and 1722.
Dr Peter Leech
Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Italian Book and Print Culture Associated with Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart (1725-1807)During the years 1747-1748, when Prince Henry Benedict Stuart was made a cardinal and ordained as a priest by Pope Benedict XIV, the focus of a life which (though according to some historians, hitherto lacked meaning and purpose), rapidly crystallized into one of sustained and passionate devotion to the Roman Catholic church through prayer, patronage, and reform. Henry's religious fervour, characterised by a daily routine of liturgical observances, interspersed with openings of new religious foundations, commissioning of sacred music, art, and architecture, and overseeing of synodal activity in Frascati and further afield, dominated almost every aspect of his life as a cardinal for sixty years. The example set by his devotion, coupled with his patronage and cardinal-protection of a vast number of churches, religious orders and artistic foundations led to his being the principal dedicatee of a great number of printed publications, encompassing poetry, liturgy, church history, architecture, patristics, synodal decrees, hagiography, and theology. This workshop explores examples of book and print culture associated with (and in many cases directly inspired by) Henry, through the lens of a private collection of artefacts assembled over the last twenty years and is a prelude to an article on the subject.A professional conductor, composer, and musicologist, Peter Leech is a specialist in the music and wider artistic culture of the British and Irish Catholic diaspora during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. During the last decade he has published several articles on music associated with the English Jesuits at St Omers, the Venerable English College, Rome, and the court of Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart in particular, revealing hitherto unknown composers and a wealth of artistic culture previously unexplored by mainstream music historians. Peter's identification of Sebastiano Bolis as Cardinal Henry's principal maestro di cappella (from 1778-c.1798) led to widely acclaimed world-premiere performances and recordings of Bolis's music (transcribed from archive sources), and several additional related projects are currently in the pipeline. A passionate collector and antiquarian, Peter has in recent times moved into the area of book history and is also working on a cultural biography of Henry Benedict Stuart after 1747. Peter has been a lecturer at the School of Music, Cardiff University since 2015.
Prof Leith Davis
Simon Fraser University
Re-envisioning “The Lyon in Mourning” Through the Lenses of Digital Humanities and Book HistoryThis presentation re-examines “The Lyon in Mourning,” a group of ten manuscript books compiled between 1747 and 1775 by the Episcopalian clergyman Robert Forbes as a record of Jacobite cultural memory following the defeat of the Jacobites after Culloden. I begin by providing an update on the “Lyon in Mourning” Digital Humanities project, a partnership between Simon Fraser University’s Research Centre for Scottish Studies and Digital Humanities Innovation Lab and the National Library of Scotland. I then use current results derived from “The Lyon in Mourning” Project in order to intervene in two areas of scholarly study. On the one hand, I suggest that adopting a Book History approach to the work can offer scholars of Jacobite and British Studies a fuller understanding of “The Lyon in Mourning” manuscript as a medial interface, allowing us to consider the manuscript in relation to what scholars such as Margaret Ezell, Michelle Levy, Rachel Scarborough King and Betty Schellenberg have discussed as an ongoing and active culture of manuscript literature in eighteenth-century Britain. On the other hand, drawing attention to the way that the manuscript represents the different media ecologies and multi-lingual societies that exist in the geographically peripheral nations of the British Isles during the eighteenth century, I suggest that examining the intersections of the individual oral, manuscript and printed items contained in “The Lyon in Mourning” can contribute to the development of a more archipelagic approach to the History of the Book.Leith Davis is a professor in the Department of English and Director of the Research Centre for Scottish Studies at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia. She is the author of Acts of Union: Scotland and the Negotiation of the British Nation (Stanford UP, 1998) and Music, Postcolonialism and Gender: The Construction of Irish National Identity, 1725-1875 (Notre Dame UP, 2005), as well as co-editor of Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism (Cambridge UP, 2004), Robert Burns and Transatlantic Culture (Ashgate, 2012) and The International Companion to Scottish Literature of the Long Eighteenth Century (ASLS, 2021). Her new book, Mediating Cultural Memory in Britain and Ireland: From the 1688 Revolution to the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion (Cambridge UP, 2022), examines media change and cultural memory in the British archipelago from 1688-1745.
Prof Robert Frost
University of Aberdeen
‘How did he turn up there?’: The Kielce Portrait of Henry Benedict StuartThis paper is a spin-off project from my short book, entitled Identity Doubtful? The Polish Portrait of Bonnie Prince Charlie, which will be published in Palgrave’s Pivots series in 2022. While searching the internet for a portrait of Jakub Sobieski, James III’s father-in-law, for a lecture I was due to give on the project, I came across an intriguing portrait on the website of the National Museum in Kielce, Poland. It was labelled ‘Portrait of Jakub Sobieski, anon. first quarter of the eighteenth century’. I immediately saw that it was not Jakub, but one of his grandsons. Consultation with Edward Corp rapidly confirmed my suspicion that this was a high-quality portrait of Henry Benedict Stuart, painted in the early 1740s. This talk will present the painting, ask how on earth it ended up in a museum in a provincial city in Poland, and say something about the Polish connections of the Stuarts, a topic that deserves far more attention than it has yet received from scholars of Jacobitism.Robert Frost is Burnett Fletcher Chair of History at the University of Aberdeen. He grew up in Edinburgh and was educated in St Andrews, Cracow, and London. After teaching at King’s College London for seventeen years, he moved to Aberdeen in 2004. Primarily a historian of the Polish-Lithuanian union, since returning to Scotland, he has become increasingly drawn into exploring the Polish connections of the Stuarts. Having published on queenship and queens consort, he is particularly interested in Clementina Sobieska, who is so often caricatured as an obsessive religious hysteric. There was far more to her than her undoubted piety.
Dr Graeme Millen
University of Kent
The First Jacobite Rising? The Case for a Re-evaluation of the Scottish Highland War, 1689-1691This chapter, written for an upcoming edited collection, seeks to challenge our preconceptions surrounding the Highland War and the terminology of the conflict as a ‘rising’. Whilst historians continue to utilise the term, we risk viewing the Scottish Jacobites of 1689-91 purely as a ‘rag-tag’ band of Highland ‘rebels’ who only posed a threat so long as they were led by their charismatic, and yet of course, ill-fated leader, John Graham, first Viscount Dundee. Moreover, this terminology has, arguably, served to characterise it as a mere ‘sideshow’ of the ongoing European conflict, which was contemporaneously no less a distraction to William or his adjutants than the conflict in Ireland. Both were viewed, contemporaneously, as important theatres of the ongoing international conflict until the dissipation of the Jacobite threat. Viewing the Highland War through the ‘whiggish’ historical prism of insurrection, or worse yet rebellion, not only burdens the historiography with notions of illegitimacy of the Jacobite cause, and vice versa for their Williamite opponents, but downplays the threat they posed to the nascent regime in the Three Kingdoms. This chapter will argue for a re-evaluation of the war by examining competing terminologies within the historiography as well as the broader sphere. By conceiving of the Highland War as a precursor to the Jacobite risings that would follow, and as part of a broader conflict at the time, it hopes to provide a better framework in which to consider both.Graeme S. Millen has just completed his PhD thesis at the University of Kent’s Centre for Medieval and Early Modern Studies. His thesis is entitled ‘The Scots-Dutch Brigade and the Highland War, 1689-92’ and is a re-examination of the Highland War, or first Jacobite Rising, from the perspective of the Scots-Dutch Brigade; a Scottish unit in the service of the Dutch Republic. The thesis critically re-assesses the involvement of the Brigade in that conflict by studying their central role at the heart of the Williamite forces there and their contribution in the first campaigns against the Jacobites in Scotland.