All workshop sessions are held on Tuesdays at 5pm UKT.
Spring 2022 Series
Professor Murray Pittock
University of Glasgow
Rebellious Scots to Crush: British Army Deployment in Central and Southern Scotland, 1748-50
Dr Harman Murtagh
Irish Commission for Military History
The Irish Jacobite Army 1689-91
University of Edinburgh
Forfeiture and Accommodation in St. Kitts, 1688-1732
Dr Peter Leech
Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Italian Book and Print Culture Associated with Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart (1725-1807)
Prof Leith Davis
Simon Fraser University
Re-envisioning “The Lyon in Mourning” Through the Lenses of Digital Humanities and Book History
Prof Robert Frost
University of Aberdeen
‘How did he turn up there?’: The Kielce Portrait of Henry Benedict Stuart
Dr Graeme Millen
University of Kent
The First Jacobite Rising? The Case for a Re-evaluation of the Scottish Highland War, 1689-1691
Previous JST Workshop Programmes
Autumn 2021 SeriesOpen or Close
Professor Daniel Szechi
University of Manchester (Emeritus)
‘Suppose I Should Lose my Life in the Quarrell, I do but my Duty’: Father James Carnegy, Espionage and Covert Action on Behalf of the Jacobite Shadow State 1697-1735This focus of this paper is Father James Carnegy, a Roman Catholic priest in the Scots Mission. In many respects he was absolutely typical of the Mission’s recruits from Scotland’s heritor elite. He was devout, learned and self-sacrificing, with a genuine commitment to his calling. But that was just his day job; he was no simple cleric. For Carnegy was also unswervingly committed to the Jacobite cause and for more than twenty-five years was deeply involved in espionage and covert action on behalf of the exiled Stuarts. And it is this highly dangerous parallel career as a spy and secret agent that will be explored in this paper with a view to understanding how it was he managed to operate so successfully for so long. By doing so we can gain a new insight into the Jacobite milieu in Scotland and the flow of intelligence from that milieu to the Jacobite court and its continental allies. In addition, Carnegy’s career will be used to test our current assumptions about the surveillance and counterintelligence capabilities of the Scottish, then British, state. Only rarely can we even come close to tracking the underground activities of a man like James Carnegy, but when we can do this we are soon led into a perilous world far removed from the polite and commercial people of historiographical legend.Daniel Szechi took his first degree at the University of Sheffield and his DPhil at the University of Oxford. Over his career he taught at St John’s College, Oxford, Auburn University, Alabama, and the University of Manchester. He retired in 2017 and is Emeritus Professor in Early Modern History at the University of Manchester, Honorary Professor of History at Aberdeen and Emeritus Professor of History at Auburn University Alabama. He continues to research and write and now also runs a historical consultancy business. He has written extensively on the history of Jacobitism and his latest book, The Jacobites: Britain and Europe 1688-1788 (2nd ed., Manchester University Press) was published in May 2019.
Professor Michael Brown
University of Aberdeen
A Union of Hearts and Minds: Conversion and Commitment in the British and Irish UnionThis paper seeks to answer the question of why, given the extent of state support for the established churches in the eighteenth century from monetary endowment to punitive measures taken against competing confessions, the rate of conversion was so low. In addressing this issue, the paper addresses the capacity of the Stuart court to maintain political commitment despite the repeated failures of its revanchist ambitions. In so doing, it explores the culture of defeat, the politics of nostalgia and the stability of religious and political identity in the wake of the revolutionary settlements of the late seventeenth century.Michel Brown holds a chair in Irish, Scottish and Enlightenment History at the University of Aberdeen, where he is also a co-Director of the Research Institute of Irish and Scottish Studies. He is the author of The Irish Enlightenment (2016) and of biographical studies of Francis Hutcheson and John Toland. He is currently writing a textbook for Routledge entitled A Cultural History of Europe, 1688-1914, and a study provisionally entitled Making Up Britain in the Eighteenth Century, from which this essay is taken.
Dr Darren S. Layne
The Jacobite Database of 1745
A Farewell to Arms: The Statistics of Surrender in Jacobite AberdeenshireIn the late summer of 1745, mere days after the last Jacobite rising had commenced, British government officials sought a suitable way to discourage as many of the common rank-and-file troops as possible as a means of halting the spread of open disaffection. They needed a plan that would quickly declaw and disperse the bulk of the Jacobite military, likely saving the precious time and enormous expense that otherwise would have been spent on prosecuting a significant population of plebeian combatants and their civilian logistical networks, should the rising be successfully crushed. The government's multi-pronged response was drafted from a fusion of debate and precedent concerning what actions were considered appropriately commensurate to the crimes and what regulations had already been established in the aftermath of the Fifteen. Citing widespread experiences of rebel plebeians going along with hereditary landowners by contract, and regular intelligence reports of Jacobite recruiters compelling commoners into the ranks with threats, the government's official de-escalation policy was designed around the promise of letting them off the hook.
Field Marshal George Wade’s public declaration in late October 1745 and Cumberland’s ‘last-chance’ proclamation in February 1746 both promised blanket indemnities through generalised ‘mercy’ to any rebel participant below the ranks of officers and gentlemen who would submit their arms and surrender their identities to local magistrates or parish ministers. Estimations of the efficacy of these amnesties have been neglected by historians, and lists of the some 4500 participants who surrendered as a direct result of these government initiatives have neither been compiled nor analysed, yet a great deal of this raw data is present in the archives. Indeed, this remarkable number of capitulations represents roughly a third of total projected Jacobite army strength through the entire campaign.
There is therefore still much to learn about the people who raised arms for the Jacobite cause outwith the extensive (and often specious) antiquarian analysis of known prisoners. The following forensic and prosopographical study of 123 voluntary surrenders in Crathie and Braemar, the spiritual heartland of Jacobite Scotland, is but an entrée to a much larger project. Yet it provides a sound methodological model to examine not only those who raised arms for Jacobitism, but those who put them back down again, choosing the government’s promises of clemency over persecution.Darren Scott Layne received his PhD from the University of St Andrews and is creator and curator of the Jacobite Database of 1745, a wide-ranging prosopographical study of people who were involved in the last rising. His historical interests are focused on the protean nature of popular Jacobitism and how the movement was expressed through its plebeian adherents. He is a passionate advocate of the digital humanities, data cogency, and accessible, open research for all.
Dr Matthias Range
University of Oxford
A Jacobite ‘Swan Song’?
The Atterbury Plot and Bononcini’s Anthem
for the Funeral of the Duke of Marlborough, 1722The so-called Atterbury Plot of 1722, named after Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster, was effectively the last major Jacobite conspiracy before Walpole’s Whig supremacy changed the political landscape with its strong suppression of political opponents. The height of the plot coincided with the funeral of the Duke of Marlborough, at which Atterbury officiated. For the elaborate ceremony Giovanni Bononcini wrote his anthem When Saul was King. This anthem, neglected by musicians and historians alike, became an important part of the eighteenth-century repertoire; it circulated in printed editions and manuscript copies and was performed throughout the country, setting new standards for grand funerals.
A new, detailed examination and contextualisation of the anonymous text of the anthem allows to suggest possible Jacobite contents with plausible references to the plot. These findings may contribute to the understanding of Jacobite ‘coded’ language and rhetoric in the first quarter of the century. In this context, this study also offers a re-appreciation of Atterbury’s well-known correspondence with Alexander Pope which allows for new readings and conclusions regarding Atterbury’s role in the plot.
Considering the possible Jacobite references in the text of the anthem, emphasised in Bononcini’s dramatic setting, it would appear that the differentiation into Jacobite and Hanoverian was not easily clear-cut, let alone obvious at the time. These possible associations contrast with the well-known perception that the Whig government and establishment tried to claim Marlborough as their own. Originating at a time when the failure of the Atterbury Plot became apparent, the anthem at Marlborough’s funeral was not merely a commemorative piece for the great Duke; rather it was a ‘Swan Song’ for the unsuccessful plot and the whole of the Jacobite movement.Matthias Range is a post-doctoral researcher for the Digital Image Archive of Medieval Music at the Faculty of Music, University of Oxford. He studied Art History and Musicology at the Philipps-University Marburg/Lahn (Germany), before completing a DPhil thesis on British Coronation Music at Oxford University in 2008, followed by a postdoctoral position in early-modern history at Oxford Brookes University. His study on Ceremonial and Music at British Coronations was published in 2012, followed by a book on British Royal and State Funerals, published in 2016. He has just finished a similar, two-volume study on British Royal Weddings since the Stuarts. His main research areas are seventeenth to nineteenth century sacred music and culture, and the history of the monarchy.
Dr Joseph Hone
David Edwards and the Jacobite PressThis paper reconstructs the inner workings of a Jacobite press active in London during the decade following the lapse of the Printing Act in 1695. For ten years, David Edwards was one of the most prolific and controversial printers in London. A specialist in Jacobite books and pamphlets, he was frequently subjected to government searches and prosecutions. And yet his name has never featured in any previous study of Jacobitism. Using bibliographical and historical techniques of detection and analysis, this paper pieces together his varied career, his networks, and his output, much of which was produced anonymously.Joseph Hone is a literary scholar and book historian at Newcastle University. He is the author of three books, most recently a revisionist account of the early career of Alexander Pope. He is currently writing a full-length study of the clandestine book trade in eighteenth-century England.
Dr Georgia Vullinghs
University of Edinburgh
Spare and Pair: The Material and Visual Culture of Henry Benedict Stuart, Jacobite Prince in ExileThe story of Jacobitism often revolves around a hero prince, Charles Edward Stuart, or ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’. Heir to the exiled Stuart dynasty, from the 1730s, Charles was the central figure of hope for a Stuart restoration. When he left Rome in 1744 to stage a French-supported invasion attempt, he was fulfilling his role as a martial prince. In all of this however, Charles had a shadow. His younger brother, Henry Benedict (1725-1807). As a medal of the two princes from 1731 declared, if Charles was the Christ-like prince who “shines amongst all”, Henry was “the next after him”: the devoted younger son of the dynasty who would loyally follow his brother, but also the ‘spare’, security for the Stuart lineage. However, the dominant image of Henry has come to be that of a Cardinal, after he took up the ecclesiastical appointment in 1747. Examining the material and visual culture of Henry Benedict Stuart pre-1747, this paper will consider his place within the Stuart dynasty as a prince in exile. It will discuss the extent to which a martial identity was created for Henry, and its limitation. Through letters exchanged between the royal brothers held amongst the Stuart Papers at Windsor, this paper also investigates the fraternal bonds between the princes and shows how dynastic hierarchies shaped Henry’s place in Jacobite history.Dr Georgia Vullinghs is a historian of eighteenth-century Scotland and Britain. She recently completed an AHRC funded PhD project, ‘Loyal Exchange: the material and visual culture of Jacobite exile, c.1716-c.1760’ with the University of Edinburgh and National Museum Scotland. In addition to Jacobite material culture, Georgia’s research interests lie in women’s histories, and Scottish cultural identity.
Dr Samuel Fisher
Catholic University of America
'Universal Instruments of Tyranny'? The Scots, Jacobitism, and the American RevolutionThis paper explores the intertwined Scotophobia and anti-Jacobitism of the American patriots. While many scholars have noted the influence of the Scottish Enlightenment on the founders, they themselves consistently depicted the Scots as enemies of the Revolution. I argue that this fear of the Scots and their (supposedly) Jacobite ways drew on a critique of Scots' role in reshaping the empire's approach to diversity – an approach American patriots associated with James II and the Stuarts.Sam Fisher is Assistant Professor of History at the Catholic University of America. His first book, Inclusive Empire, Exclusionary Patriots (forthcoming from Oxford University Press) offers a new explanation of the origins of the American Revolution. The project draws on Irish- and Scottish-Gaelic language and Native American sources to show how colonized peoples tried to reshape empires in their own image, and how their partial success convinced American colonists to leave the British empire. Fisher is also co-editor of the forthcoming anthology of Irish-language poetry Bone and Marrow/Cnámh agus Smior: An Anthology of Irish Poetry from Medieval to Modern, to be published by Wake Forest University Press in 2022.