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The JST Virtual Workshop Series returns with a fresh programme in the new year, featuring an excellent line-up of scholars sharing a wide array of their projects-in-progress. All workshops will take place on Zoom and last approximately 90 minutes. Admission is free and papers will be pre-circulated to our mailing list. Each session will consist of an informal 15-minute introduction by the presenter, and the remaining time is dedicated to space for questions, comments, sources, and suggestions by the participants. Our goal is to encourage growth of the discipline and the collegiality of its scholarly community in a safe, encouraging environment for postgraduates, ECRs, independent researchers, and established faculty alike. Project titles, abstracts, and presenter bios are listed below. Email for more info or to be placed on our list of contacts.

All workshop sessions are held on Tuesdays at 5pm UKT.

Download the Spring 2022 schedule here.

Spring 2022 Series

February 8

Professor Murray Pittock

University of Glasgow

Rebellious Scots to Crush: British Army Deployment in Central and Southern Scotland, 1748-50

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This presentation offers a focus on one aspect of a larger study, examining the movement and use of British Army units, generally but not solely in the burghs, at the end of the 1740s. It suggests that the deployment of Crown forces implied a belief that Scotland was effectively ungovernable without military support, and that this view in part arose from the difficulty commanders had in separating the use of forces to contain Jacobite unrest and bring order to Jacobite areas from disorder more primarily caused by the increasing pressures of excise collection on local economies.
Murray Pittock is Treasurer of the Jacobite Studies Trust, of which he was a founding member in 2003. He is Pro Vice-Principal at the University of Glasgow with responsibility for early career development and a range of UK and international civic engagement and knowledge exchange activities, and also provides policy advice externally. He is a fellow of the European Academy/Academia Europaea and the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and a prize lecturer of both the Royal Society of Edinburgh and the British Academy. Outside the university he is co-Chair of the Scottish Arts and Humanities Alliance and board member and Scottish History Adviser to the National Trust for Scotland. His most recent work on Jacobitism includes Material Culture and Sedition (2013) Culloden (2016; Folio Society, 2021), Scots Musical Museum (Oxford, 2018) and Enlightenment in a Smart City: Edinburgh’s Civic Development, 1660-1750 (2019). His Global History of Scotland is due to be published by Yale in 2022 and he is currently beginning a detailed study of the British Army in Scotland in the years after 1746. He broadcasts widely, and has been termed (National Endowment for the Humanities annual seminar 2014, Notre Dame) 'Scotland's leading public intellectual'.

February 22

Dr Harman Murtagh

Irish Commission for Military History

The Irish Jacobite Army 1689-91

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The scale of the Williamite/Jacobite/War-of-the-Kings war in Ireland was immense, with more complex causes than often realised. It involved the presence of rival kings, large multi-national armies, major pitched battles, sieges and other military operations, and an estimated 100,000 casualties, military and civilian. The Irish Jacobite army that sustained this conflict over three years was largely recruited from Irish Catholics, but with some French and British officers. It was not a rabble, and after a difficult start, with strong French support it became an organised force of sixty regiments. Although ultimately defeated, it proved capable of giving a good account of itself. During and immediately after the war about 20,000 of its personnel went to France. It was supported in Ireland by several auxiliary forces, the most effective of which were the partisans, known as rapparees.
Harman Murtagh is a graduate of Dublin University (TCD), the National University of Ireland, and the University of Amsterdam. He is a former president of the Military History Society of Ireland / Irish Commission for Military History. He has written and lectured extensively on the war of 1689-91. He is currently completing a study of the Irish Jacobite army.

March 8

Harry Lewis

University of Edinburgh

Forfeiture and Accommodation in St. Kitts, 1688-1732

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Although the significance of the Jacobite forfeitures within Britain and Ireland is widely appreciated, research into the phenomenon has not been extended to the Caribbean where similar policy was carried out. This paper, based on a draft chapter of my thesis, expands the subject of the forfeiture of Jacobite estates to the small Caribbean island of St. Kitts. Here, a rising in 1689 by predominately Irish Jacobites helped deliver the island to French control. However, following the recapture of the island by supporters of William and Mary, those who had aided the French invasion found their properties forfeited. This chapter explores the long-term impact of this policy alongside the various attempts pursued by the island's government to prevent the return of Jacobites to St. Kitts.
Harry is a third year PhD student at the University of Edinburgh and his project looks at the Jacobite diaspora across the Greater Caribbean in the period 1688 to circa 1750. Seeking to understand the Jacobites as a global diaspora, his research investigates the Jacobites as they moved into and across the European empires in the Greater Caribbean (principally those of Britain, France and Spain) and how these Jacobites related to the diaspora and Stuart courts in Europe. He came to the subject after an MSc by Research in 2019 that looked at the links of the Stuart government in exile to three Jacobite 'projectors' who, with varying success, sought to align the movement and Stuart-allied governments with ostensibly Jacobite pirates in the Bahamas and Madagascar between 1718 and 1722.

March 22

Dr Peter Leech

Cardiff University

Eighteenth- and Early Nineteenth-Century Italian Book and Print Culture Associated with Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart (1725-1807)

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During the years 1747-1748, when Prince Henry Benedict Stuart was made a cardinal and ordained as a priest by Pope Benedict XIV, the focus of a life which (though according to some historians, hitherto lacked meaning and purpose), rapidly crystallized into one of sustained and passionate devotion to the Roman Catholic church through prayer, patronage, and reform. Henry's religious fervour, characterised by a daily routine of liturgical observances, interspersed with openings of new religious foundations, commissioning of sacred music, art, and architecture, and overseeing of synodal activity in Frascati and further afield, dominated almost every aspect of his life as a cardinal for sixty years. The example set by his devotion, coupled with his patronage and cardinal-protection of a vast number of churches, religious orders and artistic foundations led to his being the principal dedicatee of a great number of printed publications, encompassing poetry, liturgy, church history, architecture, patristics, synodal decrees, hagiography, and theology. This workshop explores examples of book and print culture associated with (and in many cases directly inspired by) Henry, through the lens of a private collection of artefacts assembled over the last twenty years and is a prelude to an article on the subject.
A professional conductor, composer, and musicologist, Peter Leech is a specialist in the music and wider artistic culture of the British and Irish Catholic diaspora during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. During the last decade he has published several articles on music associated with the English Jesuits at St Omers, the Venerable English College, Rome, and the court of Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart in particular, revealing hitherto unknown composers and a wealth of artistic culture previously unexplored by mainstream music historians. Peter's identification of Sebastiano Bolis as Cardinal Henry's principal maestro di cappella (from 1778-c.1798) led to widely acclaimed world-premiere performances and recordings of Bolis's music (transcribed from archive sources), and several additional related projects are currently in the pipeline. A passionate collector and antiquarian, Peter has in recent times moved into the area of book history and is also working on a cultural biography of Henry Benedict Stuart after 1747. Peter has been a lecturer at the School of Music, Cardiff University since 2015.

April 5

Prof Leith Davis

Simon Fraser University

Re-envisioning “The Lyon in Mourning” Through the Lenses of Digital Humanities and Book History

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This presentation re-examines “The Lyon in Mourning,” a group of ten manuscript books compiled between 1747 and 1775 by the Episcopalian clergyman Robert Forbes as a record of Jacobite cultural memory following the defeat of the Jacobites after Culloden. I begin by providing an update on the “Lyon in Mourning” Digital Humanities project, a partnership between Simon Fraser University’s Research Centre for Scottish Studies and Digital Humanities Innovation Lab and the National Library of Scotland. I then use current results derived from “The Lyon in Mourning” Project in order to intervene in two areas of scholarly study. On the one hand, I suggest that adopting a Book History approach to the work can offer scholars of Jacobite and British Studies a fuller understanding of “The Lyon in Mourning” manuscript as a medial interface, allowing us to consider the manuscript in relation to what scholars such as Margaret Ezell, Michelle Levy, Rachel Scarborough King and Betty Schellenberg have discussed as an ongoing and active culture of manuscript literature in eighteenth-century Britain. On the other hand, drawing attention to the way that the manuscript represents the different media ecologies and multi-lingual societies that exist in the geographically peripheral nations of the British Isles during the eighteenth century, I suggest that examining the intersections of the individual oral, manuscript and printed items contained in “The Lyon in Mourning” can contribute to the development of a more archipelagic approach to the History of the Book.
Leith Davis is a professor in the Department of English and Director of the Research Centre for Scottish Studies at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia. She is the author of Acts of Union: Scotland and the Negotiation of the British Nation (Stanford UP, 1998) and Music, Postcolonialism and Gender: The Construction of Irish National Identity, 1725-1875 (Notre Dame UP, 2005), as well as co-editor of Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism (Cambridge UP, 2004), Robert Burns and Transatlantic Culture (Ashgate, 2012) and The International Companion to Scottish Literature of the Long Eighteenth Century (ASLS, 2021). Her new book, Mediating Cultural Memory in Britain and Ireland: From the 1688 Revolution to the 1745 Jacobite Rebellion (Cambridge UP, 2022), examines media change and cultural memory in the British archipelago from 1688-1745.

April 19

Prof Robert Frost

University of Aberdeen

‘How did he turn up there?’: The Kielce Portrait of Henry Benedict Stuart

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This paper is a spin-off project from my short book, entitled Identity Doubtful? The Polish Portrait of Bonnie Prince Charlie, which will be published in Palgrave’s Pivots series in 2022. While searching the internet for a portrait of Jakub Sobieski, James III’s father-in-law, for a lecture I was due to give on the project, I came across an intriguing portrait on the website of the National Museum in Kielce, Poland. It was labelled ‘Portrait of Jakub Sobieski, anon. first quarter of the eighteenth century’. I immediately saw that it was not Jakub, but one of his grandsons. Consultation with Edward Corp rapidly confirmed my suspicion that this was a high-quality portrait of Henry Benedict Stuart, painted in the early 1740s. This talk will present the painting, ask how on earth it ended up in a museum in a provincial city in Poland, and say something about the Polish connections of the Stuarts, a topic that deserves far more attention than it has yet received from scholars of Jacobitism.
Robert Frost is Burnett Fletcher Chair of History at the University of Aberdeen. He grew up in Edinburgh and was educated in St Andrews, Cracow, and London. After teaching at King’s College London for seventeen years, he moved to Aberdeen in 2004. Primarily a historian of the Polish-Lithuanian union, since returning to Scotland, he has become increasingly drawn into exploring the Polish connections of the Stuarts. Having published on queenship and queens consort, he is particularly interested in Clementina Sobieska, who is so often caricatured as an obsessive religious hysteric. There was far more to her than her undoubted piety.

May 3

Dr Graeme Millen

University of Kent

The First Jacobite Rising? The Case for a Re-evaluation of the Scottish Highland War, 1689-1691

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This chapter, written for an upcoming edited collection, seeks to challenge our preconceptions surrounding the Highland War and the terminology of the conflict as a ‘rising’. Whilst historians continue to utilise the term, we risk viewing the Scottish Jacobites of 1689-91 purely as a ‘rag-tag’ band of Highland ‘rebels’ who only posed a threat so long as they were led by their charismatic, and yet of course, ill-fated leader, John Graham, first Viscount Dundee. Moreover, this terminology has, arguably, served to characterise it as a mere ‘sideshow’ of the ongoing European conflict, which was contemporaneously no less a distraction to William or his adjutants than the conflict in Ireland. Both were viewed, contemporaneously, as important theatres of the ongoing international conflict until the dissipation of the Jacobite threat. Viewing the Highland War through the ‘whiggish’ historical prism of insurrection, or worse yet rebellion, not only burdens the historiography with notions of illegitimacy of the Jacobite cause, and vice versa for their Williamite opponents, but downplays the threat they posed to the nascent regime in the Three Kingdoms. This chapter will argue for a re-evaluation of the war by examining competing terminologies within the historiography as well as the broader sphere. By conceiving of the Highland War as a precursor to the Jacobite risings that would follow, and as part of a broader conflict at the time, it hopes to provide a better framework in which to consider both.
Graeme S. Millen has just completed his PhD thesis at the University of Kent’s Centre for Medieval and Early Modern Studies. His thesis is entitled ‘The Scots-Dutch Brigade and the Highland War, 1689-92’ and is a re-examination of the Highland War, or first Jacobite Rising, from the perspective of the Scots-Dutch Brigade; a Scottish unit in the service of the Dutch Republic. The thesis critically re-assesses the involvement of the Brigade in that conflict by studying their central role at the heart of the Williamite forces there and their contribution in the first campaigns against the Jacobites in Scotland.

Previous JST Workshop Programmes

  • Autumn 2021 Series

    Open or Close

    September 7

    Professor Daniel Szechi

    University of Manchester (Emeritus)

    ‘Suppose I Should Lose my Life in the Quarrell, I do but my Duty’: Father James Carnegy, Espionage and Covert Action on Behalf of the Jacobite Shadow State 1697-1735

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    This focus of this paper is Father James Carnegy, a Roman Catholic priest in the Scots Mission. In many respects he was absolutely typical of the Mission’s recruits from Scotland’s heritor elite. He was devout, learned and self-sacrificing, with a genuine commitment to his calling. But that was just his day job; he was no simple cleric. For Carnegy was also unswervingly committed to the Jacobite cause and for more than twenty-five years was deeply involved in espionage and covert action on behalf of the exiled Stuarts. And it is this highly dangerous parallel career as a spy and secret agent that will be explored in this paper with a view to understanding how it was he managed to operate so successfully for so long. By doing so we can gain a new insight into the Jacobite milieu in Scotland and the flow of intelligence from that milieu to the Jacobite court and its continental allies. In addition, Carnegy’s career will be used to test our current assumptions about the surveillance and counterintelligence capabilities of the Scottish, then British, state. Only rarely can we even come close to tracking the underground activities of a man like James Carnegy, but when we can do this we are soon led into a perilous world far removed from the polite and commercial people of historiographical legend.
    Daniel Szechi took his first degree at the University of Sheffield and his DPhil at the University of Oxford. Over his career he taught at St John’s College, Oxford, Auburn University, Alabama, and the University of Manchester. He retired in 2017 and is Emeritus Professor in Early Modern History at the University of Manchester, Honorary Professor of History at Aberdeen and Emeritus Professor of History at Auburn University Alabama. He continues to research and write and now also runs a historical consultancy business. He has written extensively on the history of Jacobitism and his latest book, The Jacobites: Britain and Europe 1688-1788 (2nd ed., Manchester University Press) was published in May 2019.

    September 21

    Professor Michael Brown

    University of Aberdeen

    A Union of Hearts and Minds: Conversion and Commitment in the British and Irish Union

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    This paper seeks to answer the question of why, given the extent of state support for the established churches in the eighteenth century from monetary endowment to punitive measures taken against competing confessions, the rate of conversion was so low. In addressing this issue, the paper addresses the capacity of the Stuart court to maintain political commitment despite the repeated failures of its revanchist ambitions. In so doing, it explores the culture of defeat, the politics of nostalgia and the stability of religious and political identity in the wake of the revolutionary settlements of the late seventeenth century.
    Michel Brown holds a chair in Irish, Scottish and Enlightenment History at the University of Aberdeen, where he is also a co-Director of the Research Institute of Irish and Scottish Studies. He is the author of The Irish Enlightenment (2016) and of biographical studies of Francis Hutcheson and John Toland. He is currently writing a textbook for Routledge entitled A Cultural History of Europe, 1688-1914, and a study provisionally entitled Making Up Britain in the Eighteenth Century, from which this essay is taken.

    October 5

    Dr Darren S. Layne

    The Jacobite Database of 1745

    A Farewell to Arms: The Statistics of Surrender in Jacobite Aberdeenshire

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    In the late summer of 1745, mere days after the last Jacobite rising had commenced, British government officials sought a suitable way to discourage as many of the common rank-and-file troops as possible as a means of halting the spread of open disaffection. They needed a plan that would quickly declaw and disperse the bulk of the Jacobite military, likely saving the precious time and enormous expense that otherwise would have been spent on prosecuting a significant population of plebeian combatants and their civilian logistical networks, should the rising be successfully crushed. The government's multi-pronged response was drafted from a fusion of debate and precedent concerning what actions were considered appropriately commensurate to the crimes and what regulations had already been established in the aftermath of the Fifteen. Citing widespread experiences of rebel plebeians going along with hereditary landowners by contract, and regular intelligence reports of Jacobite recruiters compelling commoners into the ranks with threats, the government's official de-escalation policy was designed around the promise of letting them off the hook.

    Field Marshal George Wade’s public declaration in late October 1745 and Cumberland’s ‘last-chance’ proclamation in February 1746 both promised blanket indemnities through generalised ‘mercy’ to any rebel participant below the ranks of officers and gentlemen who would submit their arms and surrender their identities to local magistrates or parish ministers. Estimations of the efficacy of these amnesties have been neglected by historians, and lists of the some 4500 participants who surrendered as a direct result of these government initiatives have neither been compiled nor analysed, yet a great deal of this raw data is present in the archives. Indeed, this remarkable number of capitulations represents roughly a third of total projected Jacobite army strength through the entire campaign.

    There is therefore still much to learn about the people who raised arms for the Jacobite cause outwith the extensive (and often specious) antiquarian analysis of known prisoners. The following forensic and prosopographical study of 123 voluntary surrenders in Crathie and Braemar, the spiritual heartland of Jacobite Scotland, is but an entrée to a much larger project. Yet it provides a sound methodological model to examine not only those who raised arms for Jacobitism, but those who put them back down again, choosing the government’s promises of clemency over persecution.
    Darren Scott Layne received his PhD from the University of St Andrews and is creator and curator of the Jacobite Database of 1745, a wide-ranging prosopographical study of people who were involved in the last rising. His historical interests are focused on the protean nature of popular Jacobitism and how the movement was expressed through its plebeian adherents. He is a passionate advocate of the digital humanities, data cogency, and accessible, open research for all.

    October 19

    Dr Matthias Range

    University of Oxford

    A Jacobite ‘Swan Song’?
    The Atterbury Plot and Bononcini’s Anthem
    for the Funeral of the Duke of Marlborough, 1722

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    The so-called Atterbury Plot of 1722, named after Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster, was effectively the last major Jacobite conspiracy before Walpole’s Whig supremacy changed the political landscape with its strong suppression of political opponents. The height of the plot coincided with the funeral of the Duke of Marlborough, at which Atterbury officiated. For the elaborate ceremony Giovanni Bononcini wrote his anthem When Saul was King. This anthem, neglected by musicians and historians alike, became an important part of the eighteenth-century repertoire; it circulated in printed editions and manuscript copies and was performed throughout the country, setting new standards for grand funerals.

    A new, detailed examination and contextualisation of the anonymous text of the anthem allows to suggest possible Jacobite contents with plausible references to the plot. These findings may contribute to the understanding of Jacobite ‘coded’ language and rhetoric in the first quarter of the century. In this context, this study also offers a re-appreciation of Atterbury’s well-known correspondence with Alexander Pope which allows for new readings and conclusions regarding Atterbury’s role in the plot.

    Considering the possible Jacobite references in the text of the anthem, emphasised in Bononcini’s dramatic setting, it would appear that the differentiation into Jacobite and Hanoverian was not easily clear-cut, let alone obvious at the time. These possible associations contrast with the well-known perception that the Whig government and establishment tried to claim Marlborough as their own. Originating at a time when the failure of the Atterbury Plot became apparent, the anthem at Marlborough’s funeral was not merely a commemorative piece for the great Duke; rather it was a ‘Swan Song’ for the unsuccessful plot and the whole of the Jacobite movement.
    Matthias Range is a post-doctoral researcher for the Digital Image Archive of Medieval Music at the Faculty of Music, University of Oxford. He studied Art History and Musicology at the Philipps-University Marburg/Lahn (Germany), before completing a DPhil thesis on British Coronation Music at Oxford University in 2008, followed by a postdoctoral position in early-modern history at Oxford Brookes University. His study on Ceremonial and Music at British Coronations was published in 2012, followed by a book on British Royal and State Funerals, published in 2016. He has just finished a similar, two-volume study on British Royal Weddings since the Stuarts. His main research areas are seventeenth to nineteenth century sacred music and culture, and the history of the monarchy.

    2 November

    Dr Joseph Hone

    Newcastle University

    David Edwards and the Jacobite Press

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    This paper reconstructs the inner workings of a Jacobite press active in London during the decade following the lapse of the Printing Act in 1695. For ten years, David Edwards was one of the most prolific and controversial printers in London. A specialist in Jacobite books and pamphlets, he was frequently subjected to government searches and prosecutions. And yet his name has never featured in any previous study of Jacobitism. Using bibliographical and historical techniques of detection and analysis, this paper pieces together his varied career, his networks, and his output, much of which was produced anonymously.
    Joseph Hone is a literary scholar and book historian at Newcastle University. He is the author of three books, most recently a revisionist account of the early career of Alexander Pope. He is currently writing a full-length study of the clandestine book trade in eighteenth-century England.

    16 November

    Dr Georgia Vullinghs

    University of Edinburgh

    Spare and Pair: The Material and Visual Culture of Henry Benedict Stuart, Jacobite Prince in Exile

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    The story of Jacobitism often revolves around a hero prince, Charles Edward Stuart, or ‘Bonnie Prince Charlie’. Heir to the exiled Stuart dynasty, from the 1730s, Charles was the central figure of hope for a Stuart restoration. When he left Rome in 1744 to stage a French-supported invasion attempt, he was fulfilling his role as a martial prince. In all of this however, Charles had a shadow. His younger brother, Henry Benedict (1725-1807). As a medal of the two princes from 1731 declared, if Charles was the Christ-like prince who “shines amongst all”, Henry was “the next after him”: the devoted younger son of the dynasty who would loyally follow his brother, but also the ‘spare’, security for the Stuart lineage. However, the dominant image of Henry has come to be that of a Cardinal, after he took up the ecclesiastical appointment in 1747. Examining the material and visual culture of Henry Benedict Stuart pre-1747, this paper will consider his place within the Stuart dynasty as a prince in exile. It will discuss the extent to which a martial identity was created for Henry, and its limitation. Through letters exchanged between the royal brothers held amongst the Stuart Papers at Windsor, this paper also investigates the fraternal bonds between the princes and shows how dynastic hierarchies shaped Henry’s place in Jacobite history.
    Dr Georgia Vullinghs is a historian of eighteenth-century Scotland and Britain. She recently completed an AHRC funded PhD project, ‘Loyal Exchange: the material and visual culture of Jacobite exile, c.1716-c.1760’ with the University of Edinburgh and National Museum Scotland. In addition to Jacobite material culture, Georgia’s research interests lie in women’s histories, and Scottish cultural identity.

    30 November

    Dr Samuel Fisher

    Catholic University of America

    'Universal Instruments of Tyranny'? The Scots, Jacobitism, and the American Revolution

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    This paper explores the intertwined Scotophobia and anti-Jacobitism of the American patriots. While many scholars have noted the influence of the Scottish Enlightenment on the founders, they themselves consistently depicted the Scots as enemies of the Revolution. I argue that this fear of the Scots and their (supposedly) Jacobite ways drew on a critique of Scots' role in reshaping the empire's approach to diversity – an approach American patriots associated with James II and the Stuarts.
    Sam Fisher is Assistant Professor of History at the Catholic University of America. His first book, Inclusive Empire, Exclusionary Patriots (forthcoming from Oxford University Press) offers a new explanation of the origins of the American Revolution. The project draws on Irish- and Scottish-Gaelic language and Native American sources to show how colonized peoples tried to reshape empires in their own image, and how their partial success convinced American colonists to leave the British empire. Fisher is also co-editor of the forthcoming anthology of Irish-language poetry Bone and Marrow/Cnámh agus Smior: An Anthology of Irish Poetry from Medieval to Modern, to be published by Wake Forest University Press in 2022.